Remote health care has become a crucial need in today’s world. Have you ever thought about what is making wireless communication possible inside and outside the human body? It is the WBAN that is facilitating us by enabling the medical and nonmedical applications to communicate wirelessly with or without human intervention. Better health now through information technology. It is good that apps help doctors in understanding the inside of a human because of implanted devices. Implanted devices communicate with patients and doctors. But is it safe to use? Being all the time available or any miscommunication can lead to many severe problems. So, there are multiple challenges of WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network ). The primary challenge it faces is of security. Yeah, what is more, attractive for hackers other than getting inside of any person’s body? So security and other problems need to be addressed.
A union between miniaturization and connectivity
We all are aware of the numerous benefits that wireless communication has brought to our lives. Entering into the era of 5G, LTE-A, and many such wireless networks are cool, but are they challenges free? In the past decade, the target was to achieve the M2M (machine to machine) communication, and now it achieved through WBAN and Zigbee. The low power sensors are making this communication efficient and timely. Multiple sensors game control and send messages regarding the heartbeat, sugar level, blood pressure, and many such maintenance issues timely to the doctor. Do you what affects the most in WBAN? The DDOS (distributed denial of service attack) makes the device unreachable and hence can lead to death as well.
Wireless body area network faces the challenges of security, QoS, networking, mobility, communication, and energy. In communication, WBAN faces challenges of QOS, networking, and cooperation. To ensure or lock up the security, WBAN faces challenges of mobility and energy requirements. Let’s explore the challenges of WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network ) and some possible solutions.
Portability and location independence comes only after WBAN support. But, there are some limitations of mobility in wireless sensor networks. Some applications, like E-health, faces problems of communication. There is an involvement of seamless links between the user and WBAN. The primary obstacle is to reach the seamless connection, which can be multi-hop or single hop. Mobility can not be achieved by applying a single strategy to reach the seamless link, but the better approach is to go for an optimized path. There must be a technique such as MAC with the TDMA in which message flooded, and the node with the minimum delay communicate efficiently. To resolve the issues of mobility, multipath routing is the optimal solution. Establishing the link by considering the various factors of routing maintenance in a path is the most optimal solution by which the user and WBAN communicate with a seamless node efficiently.
The higher the size of the network, the more will be the problems of routing a throughput in WBAN. In the connected node, link sharing also affects the bandwidth of the network. So, in a wireless body area network problem of slow routing arises in the homogenous channelization. The other challenge of WBAN in networks is of self organizations of mobile nodes. Shared medium and limited resource devices also raise networking issues in the WBAN. Problems in routing protocols also initiate the difficulties of management, scalability, monitoring fee, configuration, and dynamic topology. The only solution to this challenge is the implementation of multi-hop routing.
The devices which communicate in the wireless body area network are wireless sensor node. They demand proper power to achieve scalability and mobility. But unfortunately, this power comes in a limited manner. It is because of the shared medium and to carry many things at the back end except the main functions. As these devices are free to roam freely, but it is possible only if they have efficient batteries. The other issue is that devices implanted in the body are small, so they are unable to hold more power and demand maintenance in the longer run.
A reasonable power source can only solve the energy requirements of these small power nodes implanted in the body. We can also say that the power of the battery is directly proportional to the weight of the cell, and it is impossible to implant big devices in the human body. So the solution to this problem is that isolated energy in the vicinity of nodes must convert to electric power to fulfill the demands of energy efficiency.
compromise of implanted devices in the human body is deadly. It is the major challenge of WBAN. One challenge is that there must not be any miscommunication. The security attacks to which WBAN are vulnerable are eavesdropping, message replay and injection, invade privacy, and compromised integrity. So, there is a need for an end to end encryption in the wireless body area network because of these cybersecurity attacks. These kinds of assaults exhibit catastrophic effects on WBAN.
The wireless body area networks comprised of life-critical systems and any parameter missing can lead to death. To ensure the quality, timeliness must prevail in the wireless network. Some factors must attain in the WBAN. These include jitter, latency, trustworthiness, bandwidth, robustness, and scalability.
Health is the primary requirement of life, and any little mistake or compromising a node can lead to death in WBAN. The availability and security must always stand in WBAN for scalability. So, basically, in WBAN, there are issues of cooperation and security. There must not be any interference and blockage in WBAN.