For more than a hundred years, Forensic science is helping in solving mysteries of the crime scene, identifying suspects and give accurate reports. The forensic science has many versatile fields such as toxicology, psychology engineering, and digital sciences. If we study digital forensic research, then there are three distinct communities. The law enforcement, industrial businesses, and military requires the complete knowledge of digital forensics. Why the need for digital forensics evolved? In the year 1970, electronic crimes made the cyber world vulnerable to use. In the financial sector, the ratio of electronic crimes was numerous. As they were the crimes, occur on computers, so the law enforcement officers were unable to investigate properly. It made it difficult for them to preserve evidence for trials. At that time, DOS was available, and forensics tools were not advanced enough.
After some time, a tool XTree Gold launched for the retrieval of lost and deleted data. After that, Norton DiskEdit and MacSE helped in retrieving the lost data or altered data by criminals. So now you can understand that digital forensics is all about the investigation of the crimes occur at computer systems.
Disciplines of Digital Forensics
The disciplines of digital forensics are computer forensics, data recovery, network forensic, and disaster recovery. The complete knowledge of digital forensics helps in understanding different disciplines. The computer forensics is the investigation of the data that retrieval from the computer’s storage media and hard disk. The computer forensics also supports all the tasks which help in the recovery of deleted data to use as a piece of evidence. Sometimes, a computer forensic investigator finds out hidden data to use it as evidence. The remnants of evidence found by a computer forensics investigator can be damaging or exculpatory.
The network forensics is all about the efforts to know how some accessed the system. It highlights the fact of how the attacker attempted security breach and obtained the specific areas of the network. The digital forensics is not all about the crime scenes and criminal systems investigation. It also helps in the retrieval of data deleted by mistake.
Sometime in sensitive organizations as a result of a server crash, some crucial information gets deleted. So, data recovery forensics help in the recovery of the lost data. The forensic investigators help in data recovery only when the organizations typically know what they are looking for. The disaster recovery works in the field of digital forensic in three steps. The first one is to find the vulnerability, then investigations, and the intrusion response. It is the triangle of these three steps for the disaster recovery. The complete knowledge of digital forensics enables the investigators to figure out in which discipline and with what activities the process will get finished.
The activities of digital forensics
The digital forensics works in the sequence of activities to acquire the desired purpose. Whenever there is a forensic investigation started, the first activity is to collect the computer data securely. After collection, identification of suspect data is necessary. After the list of the suspect, information is ready; examination starts to find out the content and origin of suspect data. The examination process followed by the presentation of computer evidence to the court of law. The country’s law then implements on the indications for the computer practice.
3A’s methodology followed by the digital forensic investigators
Here is the 3A’s method which investigator follows in terms of rules and regulations
The careful steps to acquire the data without modification and also damaging the original content.
The acquired data follow the authentication process with the help of the image.
There should be no modification of data during analysis. So, the phases of digital forensics consist of identification, collection, preservation, examination, analysis, and report.
The job career of the person equipped with digital forensic knowledge is very bright. There are digital forensic technician, scientists, analyst, lab director, and digital forensic investigator. The professional opportunities are available to them in the field of law enforcement, academia, intelligence community, and military.
There are some issues in the digital forensics, which make it difficult for the investigators for investigation. There is a lack of certification of tools, professionals, curriculum accreditation, and immature scientific discipline. A rapid change is a technology is also making digital forensic investigation challenging to be carried out. Where cloud computing has solved the problems of storage, but the forensic investigators are facing big challenges in cloud computing. Similarly the tight security applications such as Apple follows and BlackBerry, forensic investigators find it difficult to investigate the crime activities. So there is need for more advanced forensic tools and to polish the forensic investigation techniques.
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